Within the past decade, there has been an increasing amount of interest in the use of probiotics for several paediatric conditions. The main gastrointestinal conditions for which probiotics have been used in children include antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, infectious (viral and bacterial) diarrhoea and necrotising enterocolitis (NE). Probiotics have also been used in several extraintestinal disorders including atopic dermatitis and recurrent urinary tract infections.
This article discusses
The intestinal microflora in children
Probiotic applications in children covering infectious diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
The immune system
Other applications including necrotising enterocolitis and urogenital infections